Your title: Write the title first. It should indicate that the essay is a proposal. “How to Reduce Shoplifting” or “An Effective way to Reduce Shoplifting” are two of the conventional titles, but you can be more creative with a title like “Counters to Counter Shoplifting.”
Paragraph 1: This should be an anecdote. This paragraph is what we call “exposition with an individual example,” which is attractive and apt for the beginning of any paper. You should just tell the story without comments, ideas, or arguments. The reader should be able to glimpse the problem after reading the anecdote. Make sure that the anecdote is relevant.
Paragraph 2: Now expose the prevailing situation with evidence. This is where you give statistics, facts, data, etc. to convince the reader that the problem exists. However, make sure that you do not use the word problem in this paragraph. You are just exposing the prevailing satiation without interpreting it as a problem. You cannot write this paragraph out of your brain.
Paragraph 3: Recognize the situation exposed in the previous two paragraphs as a problem. This is where you have to summarize all the adverse consequences of the situation for the reader to understand that what is happening is problematic. Close this paragraph telling the reader that the situation is actually problematic, and immediate attention is necessary.
Paragraph 4: Write about other solutions that have failed or been partially successful. You propose a solution to a problem because other solutions have not been effective, or nobody has ever identified the situation as a problem, and, consequently, no solution has been offered. Tell the reader about it and close the paragraph saying that, because other solutions have not been effective, a better solution to the given problem is necessary.
Paragraph 5: This is your thesis paragraph in which you introduce your solution in the first sentence. The rest of the paragraph should give more details about the solution, but do not argue in favor of your solution. Here, the reader wants a comprehensive understanding about your solution, not about how effective it is going to be. Elaborate on such details as how, where, when, and who is to put the proposal into action.
Paragraph 6: Now the reader wants you to defend your solution. You do so by giving strong reasons, the reasons with strong warrants. Your topic sentence in this paragraph should restate the solution with a reason, and the rest of the paragraph should develop the reason adequately. The closing sentence should again remind the reader the effectiveness of the solution.
Paragraph 7: In its structure, this paragraph is similar to the previous one, but you need to give another reason. Your topic sentence should not follow the pattern of the topic sentence in the previous paragraph. They should give and discuss reasons as to why your proposal will be effective in solving the problem.
Paragraph 8: Now is the time to introduce, elaborate on, show some respect to, and finally refute the opposition of your solution. Paragraph 8 should introduce and elaborate on the opposite reaction to your solution. Make sure that you begin this paragraph with such a transitional word or expression as ‘In contrast,” “Still,” or “Conversely.” Also make sure that you present the opposite claim as theirs, not yours. In the topic sentence, use such a clause as “some might claim/argue that.” Every sentence that elaborates on the opposition should have a clause or a phrase such as “they further claim that” and “according to their viewpoint.”
Paragraph 9: We do not simply dump the ideas coming from the opposition; instead, argument being a truth seeking effort, we show agreement if an ideas is agreeable. However, do not fully agree with the opposition, or else, the reader would think that you have deserted your own viewpoint. Begin the paragraph with such sentences as:
This argument of the opposition may be agreeable under certain conditions/to a certain extent.
Of course, one would agree that the argument presented by the opposition deserves some merit
Certainly, one may not discard the opposite viewpoint given above as entirely baseless.
Then, discuss in several sentences why you partially agree with the opposition, and restate the topic sentence to close the paragraph.
Paragraph 10: Now refute the opposition. You must begin the first sentence of the paragraph with a transitional word like however, nevertheless, or nonetheless and then say that the opposite argument against your solution is weak overall. Then show the reader in several sentences why you say so. Close the paragraph by emphasizing the effectiveness of your solution.
Paragraph 11: This is your conclusion. In your topic sentence you should restate your thesis (solution) with a transitional word or phrase like to sum up, to conclude, or thus, summarize your body paragraphs, and write a strong ending. Make sure that you summery should not include anything from paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 since they are not a part of your solution. Basically, you must summarize the two reasons given in support of your solution and mention about the opposition as well. We discussed “strong ending” earlier.
Length: Between 1200 to 1500 words
Grading Criteria: Generally, grading criteria include your focus, development, style, and grammar and mechanics. I will evaluate them all for a holistic grade. The following specific instructions simplify what is expected:
1. Structure your paragraphs according to the instructions given above.
2. Write fully developed paragraphs. Each paragraph should be between 100 to 140 words.
3. Use a transitional word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of each paragraph
(excluding in the anecdote), as well as within paragraphs.
4. Write a topic sentence, supporting sentence, and closing sentence for each paragraph.
5. Demonstrate your reading, especially while writing paragraphs 2, 3, and 4.
6. Integrate quotations and sources correctly. You do not have to prepare a work-cited page for this paper. We will learn how to integrate sources within the essay.
7. Maintain an argumentative tone. Especially, when you present ideas as suggestions use such verbs as seem, appear, and look like, or adverbs like maybe, apparently, or perhaps, A variety of sentence patterns to enrich the style.
8. Write parallel and emphatic sentences. We discussed parallelism earlier. To gain emphasis, use active voice and action verbs, as well as such adverbs like undoubtedly, certainly, and unquestionably.
9. Avoid the First Person and the Third Person except in the anecdote.
10. Maintain a polished style: minimize the use of there, it, this, and that as subjects; avoid “is/was+because/when/if” structure, and use verbal phrases including absolute phrases, and a variety of sentence patterns.
11. Careful edit to avoid common errors in grammar and mechanics, specially fragments, run-ons, and wrong pronoun references
12. Maintain a clear connection between early drafts and the final draft
13. Show a marked improvement in the final draft
14. Use the MLA style.
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