The Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)

The Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS)

To complete this paper, the review should take a neutral tone, evaluating strengths and limitations of the test by addressing the following in detail:

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A. Description of the instrument and the construct or constructs it seeks to measure and any theory associated with the instrument or constructs.

b. Historical background on the development of the instrument: How was the test derived (e.g., empirically derived, theoretically derived)? Is there any historical material reported? (e.g., was this a revised version or shortened version of an earlier test?) If there are subtests, how were those subtests developed?

c. Utilization of the instrument in research and practice, including populations for which the instrument was intended to be used.

d. Description of items and scoring: How many items? What is the response format? How is it scored? Include five studies that examine the psychometric properties of the instrument.

e. How was the test constructed: Was this an empirically derived test or a theoretically derived test? Is there any historical material reported? (e.g., was this a revised version or shortened version of an earlier test?) If there are subtests, how were those subtests developed?

f. Psychometric data (this should be the longest section of the critique): Who was the test normed on? Report in detail on the reliability and validity of the test as described by the test developer (usually included in the test manual that accompanies the test). Make sure that at a minimum you report on the internal consistency (all available including Cronbach’s alpha, split-half, KR21), test-retest reliability and alternate forms reliability (if applicable). Also the various measures of validity such as criterion-related validity (both convergent and divergent), content validity, and discuss construct validity and how that might be supported. You can also mention face validity (you can determine that), but this should not be the focus of the section on validity. Define psychometric terms when they are first introduced.

g. Current controversies and limitations of the measure OR a detailed description of how this measure could be improved and how these improvements may change your targeted psychometric factors: What does the current literature say?

h. Your evaluation of this test: Would you use it? Why or why not? Are there restrictions on when/where you would use it? Any ethical issues?

References
Alexander, L., & Liljequist, L. (2016). Determining the accuracy of self-report versus informant-report using the conners’ adult ADHD rating scale. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20(4), 346-352. doi:10.1177/1087054713478652.

Amador-Campos, J. A., Nuño, L., & Gómez-Benito, J. (2016). The Conner’s Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Long Self-Report and Observer Forms: Validation of the Catalan Version. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 38(2), 209-215.

Amador-Campos, J. A., Gómez-Benito, J., & Ramos-Quiroga, J. A. (2014). The Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scales—Short self-report and observer forms: Psychometric properties of the Catalan version. Journal of attention disorders, 18(8), 671-679.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.

Ben-Sheetrit, J., Zurawel, M., Weizman, A., & Manor, I. (2019). Symptoms versus impairment in adults with ADHD: Intercorrelations of the BRIEF-A, CAARS, and TOVA. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(13), 1557-1566. doi:10.1177/1087054716682334.

Christiansen, H., Kis, B., Hirsch, O., Matthies, S., Hebebrand, J., Uekermann, J., … & Colla, M. (2012). German validation of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS) II: Reliability, validity, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. European Psychiatry, 27(5), 321-328.

Cleland, C., Magura, S., Foote, J., Rosenblum, A., & Kosanke, N. (2006). Factor structure of the conners adult ADHD rating scale (CAARS) for substance users. Addictive Behaviors, 31(7), 1277-1282. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.08.014

Conners, C. K. (1997). Conners’ Rating Scales–Revised. New York: Multihealth Systems.
Conners, C. K., Erhardt, D., & Sparrow, M. A. (1999) Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). New York: Multihealth Systems, Inc.

Fuermaier, A. B., Tucha, L., Koerts, J., Weisbrod, M., Grabemann, M., Zimmermann, M., … & Tucha, O. (2016). Evaluation of the CAARS infrequency index for the detection of noncredible ADHD symptom report in adulthood. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 34(8), 739-750.

Ghassemi, F., Moradi, M. H., Tehrani-Doost, M., & Abootalebi, V. (2010). Evaluation of estimating missed answers in conners adult ADHD rating scale (screening version). Iranian Journal of Psychiatry, 5(3), 108-112.

Harrison, A. G., Nay, S., & Armstrong, I. T. (2019). Diagnostic accuracy of the conners’ adult ADHD rating scale in a postsecondary population. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(14), 1829-1837. doi:10.1177/1087054715625299.

Luderer, M., Kaplan-Wickel, N., Richter, A., Reinhard, I., Kiefer, F., & Weber, T. (2019). Screening for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in alcohol dependent patients: Underreporting of ADHD symptoms in self-report scales. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 195, 52-58. doi:10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2018.11.020.

Robinson, E. V., Robinson, E. V., Rogers, R., & Rogers, R. (2018). Detection of feigned ADHD across two domains: The MMPI-2-RF and CAARS for faked symptoms and TOVA for simulated attention deficits. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 40(3), 376-385. doi:10.1007/s10862-017-9640-8.

Rodriguez, P. D., & Simon-Dack, S. L. (2013). Factor analysis of five adult ADHD self-report measures: Are they all the same? Journal of Attention Disorders, 17(1), 64-69. doi:10.1177/1087054711423627.

Rösler, M., Retz, W., Thome, J., Schneider, M., Stieglitz, R. -., & Falkai, P. (2006). Psychopathological rating scales for diagnostic use in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 256(S1), i3-i11. doi:10.1007/s00406-006-1001-7.

Sandra Kooij, J. J., Keith Conners, C., Goto, T., Tanaka, Y., Williams, D., Allen, A. J., . . . Upadhyaya, H. P. (2012;2013;). Validity of conners’ adult attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder rating scale-investigator rated: Screening version in patients from within and outside of europe. Psychiatry Research, 208(1), 94-96. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2012.12.003.

Someki, F., Ohnishi, M., Vejdemo-Johansson, M., & Nakamura, K. (2019). Reliability, validity, factor structure, and measurement invariance of the japanese conners’ adult ADHD rating scales (CAARS). Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, , 73428291984203. doi:10.1177/0734282919842030.

Smyth, A. C., & Meier, S. T. (2019). Evaluating the psychometric properties of the conners adult ADHD rating scales. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(10), 1111-1118. doi:10.1177/1087054715624230.

Suhr, J. A., Buelow, M., & Riddle, T. (2011). Development of an infrequency index for the CAARS. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29(2), 160-170. doi:10.1177/0734282910380190.

Walls, B., Wallace, E., Brothers, S., & Berry, D. (2017). Utility of the conners’ adult ADHD rating scale validity scales in identifying simulated attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and random responding. Psychological Assessment, 29(12), 1437-1446. doi:10.1037/pas0000530.

Weiss, G., & Hechtman, L. (1993). Hyperactive children grown up: ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

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